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2019 Sawamura Award and Distinguished Article Award


Announcement of the decision on the Tawara Award, the Sawamura Award and the Distinguished Article Award in 2019

Tawara Award and Sawamura Award including Guimarães Award

The award-winning papers in 2019 have been chosen from among the articles published, respectively, in Tetsu-to-Hagané and ISIJ International journals in 2018. As of this year, the Sawamura Award is to be given up to six papers in the light of the recent trend of the increase in published papers.

Distinguished Article Award

The Distinguished Article Award has newly been instituted this year to praise the most influential paper in academic and/or technical respects over the past ten years. The award-winning paper is to be chosen from among the articles published in Tetsu-to-Hagané and/or ISIJ International journals ten (± one) years ago as a general rule.

Details including the reason for decision will be posted on our website as well as will be reported in No. 11 issues of Tetsu-to-Hagané and ISIJ International.

Tawara Award

Evaluation of Coke Degradation Effect on Flow Characteristics in Packed Bed Using 3D Scanning for Rotational Mechanical Strength Test and Solid-liquid-gas Three-phase Dynamic Model Analysis

Tetsu-to-Hagané, Vol.104, No.7, pp.347-357
Shungo NATSUI, Akinori SAWADA(Tohoku Univ.), Koki TERUI, Yusuke KASHIHARA(JFE Steel Corp.), Tatsuya KIKUCHI, Ryosuke O. SUZUKI(Tohoku Univ.)

Development of Analysis Method for Sulfide in Steel with Chelating Agent of Copper

Tetsu-to-Hagané, Vol.104, No.11, pp.634-639
Kazumi MIZUKAMI(Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corp., Nippon Steel & Sumikin Technology Co., Ltd) , Daisuke ITABASHI, Michihiro AIMOTO, Masayuki NISHIFUJI(Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corp.)

Influence of Selective Surface Oxidation of Si and Mn on Fe-Zn Alloying Reaction on Hot-rolled Steel Sheets

Tetsu-to-Hagané, Vol.104, No.11, pp.646-654
Masaki KOBA, Yusuke FUSHIWAKI, Yasunobu NAGATAKI(JFE Steel Corp.)

Lattice Strain and Strength Evaluation on V Microalloyed Pearlite Steel

Tetsu-to-Hagané, Vol.104, No.11, pp.673-682
Taketo MAEJIMA, Mitsuharu YONEMURA, Kaori KAWANO(Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corp.), Goro MIYAMOTO(Tohoku Univ.)

Sawamura Award

Recovery of Phosphorus from Modified Steelmaking Slag with High P2O5 Content via Leaching and Precipitation

ISIJ International, Vol.58, No.5, pp. 833-841
Chuanming DU, Xu GAO, Shigeru UEDA, Shin-ya KITAMURA( Tohoku Univ.)

The reason for an award

Separation and recovery of phosphorus from steelmaking slag is an important research subject related to decrease of slag generation and resource utilization. On the other hand, phosphorus recovery is becoming more and more important in the near future because high iron phosphate ore is expected to be used and steelmaking slag with high phosphorus oxide concentration is expected. Phosphorus oxide in the slag is concentrated to a soluble C2S–C3P solid solution, which enables selective elution of phosphorus. In this paper, steelmaking slag containing a high concentration of phosphoric acid is used to investigate the effect of K2O addition on phosphorus recovery by leaching, and a steelmaking process using high P ore is proposed. Through detailed experiments, the influential factors in the leaching and precipitation processes were investigated, and the control method for phosphorus recovery was clarified. A solid containing 30% phosphorus oxide was recovered by separation and calcination of the precipitate, indicating that it could be used as a phosphate fertilizer. In addition, the leaching residue could be recycled.

This paper deals with very important engineering themes, taking into account the steelmaking process at the blast furnace integrated steelworks, and the experiments are detailed and the development in practical use is clear and can be evaluated. It can be highly evaluated in both academic and technical aspects, and it can be judged that the paper is suitable for the Sawamura Award.

Mechanism of Mild Cooling by Crystallisation of Mould Flux for Continuous Casting of Steel - A View from Apparent Thermal Conductivity under Steep Temperature Gradient –

ISIJ International, Vol.58, No.5, pp.905-914
Shunsuke TAKAHASHI, Rie ENDO, Takashi WATANABE, Miyuki HAYASHI, Masahiro SUSA(Tokyo Inst. of Technol.)

The reason for an award

This paper describes the effect and mechanism of crystallization on heat transfer of mold flux used in a continuous casting of steelmaking process.

The apparent thermal conductivities including radiation conduction were measured on glassy and crystallized mold flux samples under steep temperature gradients using a new original experimental apparatus. In the experiment, the apparent thermal conductivity of Inconel 600 and fused silica were measured in comparison with that of mold flux. Moreover a heat transfer calculation model about solid mold flux film has been developed and discussed using the obtained experimental data of mold flux. Especially it was clarified that the thermal conductivity increased with the increase of the crystallization rate in the temperature range from room temperature to 350℃. Moreover the apparent thermal conductivity of the glassy layer increased to 1.54 (W/m/K) for 1.32 (W/m/K) of the crystal layer in the temperature range from 500℃ to 600℃. And then the effect of radiation on the apparent thermal conductivity was clarified quantitatively by this paper.

A lot of valuable basic data about heat transfer of mold flux used in continuous casting process were collected and analyzed by the new original experimental facilities and mathematical calculation model. Therefore, this paper is considered to be valuable with respect to not only academic but also industrial point of view, and hence is worthy of the Sawamura Award.

Oxidation of Ti Added ULC Steel by CO Gas Simulating Interfacial Reaction between the Steel and SEN during Continuous Casting

ISIJ International, Vol.58, No.7, pp.1257-1266
Joo-Hyeok LEE(POSTECH), Myeong-Hun KANG, Sung-Kwang KIM(POSCO), Youn-Bae KANG(POSTECH)

The reason for an award

Clogging of submerged entry nozzle in continuous casting process is a severe technical issue directly affecting production efficiency and product quality. Although various mechanisms have been proposed as reasons of nozzle clogging, its consensus has not been achieved.

Establishment of the efficient production technology is desired.

The present paper focused on the possibility of oxidation of Ti and Al in molten steel by CO gas produced from the reaction between C and SiO2 contained in nozzle material. Firstly, the phase diagram for the FetO-Al2O3-TiOx system under reducing atmosphere was estimated by CALPHAD method, and the formation of liquid oxide was thermodynamically predicted. Secondly, lab-scale experiments holding molten Fe, Fe-Al, Fe-Ti, or Fe-Al-Ti alloy under CO atmosphere in Al2O3 crucible at 1560℃ were conducted to observe the reaction behavior at the interface between molten steel and nozzle material, and distribution of products. Formation of the FetO-Al2O3-TiOx liquid oxide was observed as estimated from the phase diagram, and Al2O3 oxide was entrapped in the liquid oxide. Reaction mechanism was deduced from above experimental facts and estimated phase diagram, and the nozzle clogging mechanism was proposed.

This paper reports the excellent findings which can provide fundamental and concrete countermeasures to prevent nozzle clogging. The achievement is highly evaluated from both academic and practical aspects. This paper is worthy of the Sawamura Award.

In-situ Evaluation Method for Crack Generation and Propagation Behaviors of Iron Ore Burden during Low Temperature Reduction by Applying Acoustic Emission Method

ISIJ International, Vol.58, No.8, pp.1413-1419
Moritoshi MIZUTANI, Tsunehisa NISHIMURA, Takashi ORIMOTO, Kenichi HIGUCHI, Seiji NOMURA, Koji SAITO (Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corp.), Eiki KASAI(Tohoku Univ.)

The reason for an award

There is a growing demand for use of low grade iron ores, i.e., iron ores with high content ratio of gangue (SiO2, Al2O3) or fine ores, etc., as burden of BF from the viewpoints of lack of high grade iron ores or expensive cost. Reduction disintegration often proceeds through crack generation and propagation caused by volume expansion due to the reduction of iron ore from hematite to magnetite, and it is concerned about increasing pressure loss with decreasing permeability in the blast furnace (BF). In this case, the high productivity and stable operation of BF can’t be maintained. The authors tried to apply acoustic emission (AE) method for a detailed in-situ observation of BF burden materials by a combinational experimental of reduction disintegration, and found that gaseous species (H2 and CO) had a large influence on crack generation and propagation of sample by measuring a large number of AEs during initial and later reduction stages. Moreover, they revealed that crack generation and propagation of samples were strongly influenced by thermal stress generated during cooling stage. They first could evaluated RDI values quantitatively by apply AE method. These obtained results leads to quantitatively evaluation of reduction disintegration behavior, and it is expected to establish new technology of stable operation of BF.

Considering the above achievements, this paper has an academic and a technical significance, and especially promises the ripple effect in the field of iron-making. Thus it is worth of the Sawamura Award.

Anisotropy in Hydrogen Embrittlement Resistance of Drawn Pearlitic Steel Investigated by in-situ Microbending Test during Cathodic Hydrogen Charging

ISIJ International, Vol.58, No.2, pp.340-348
Kota TOMATSU, Takafumi AMINO, Tetsushi CHIDA, Shunya UJI, Makoto OKONOGI, Hikaru KAWATA, Tomohiko OMURA, Naoki MARUYAMA, Yoshitaka NISHIYAMA (Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corp.)

The reason for an award

It has long been thought that excellent hydrogen embrittlement resistance of drawn pearlitic steel is caused by its fine lamellar structure aligned in the drawing direction. However, there is no direct experimental evidence to support the mechanism, because it is very difficult to get macroscopic specimens with the tensile axis normal to the drawing direction from the drawn wire with small diameter. In the present study, authors newly applied in-situ microbending test during cathodic hydrogen charging by using focused ion beam and indentation techniques in order to directory investigate the anisotropy of hydrogen embrittlement resistant of drawn pearlitic steel. As a result, it was revealed that the hydrogen embrittlement crack propagates more easily in the direction parallel to the ferrite/cementite interface than normal to that, which suggests that the directional lamellar alignment of the pearlitic steels effectively suppresses the hydrogen embrittlement crack propagation in the radial direction of the drawn wire. Furthermore, high resolution lattice image obtained by scanning/transmission electron microscopy clearly revealed that the crack propagates along the ferrite/cementite interface, and KC is considerably small.

Considering the above achievements, this paper is regarded as outstanding one toward uncovering the mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement, and hence worthy of the Sawamura Award.

In situ Neutron Diffraction Study on Ferrite and Pearlite Transformations for a 1.5Mn-1.5Si-0.2C Steel

ISIJ International, Vol.58, No.11, pp. 2125-2132
Yo TOMOTA, Yan Xu WANG, Takahito OHMURA(National Institute for Materials Science), Nobuaki SEKIDO(Tohoku Univ.), Stefanus HARJO, Takuro KAWASAKI(Japan Atomic Energy Agency), Wu GONG(Kyoto Univ.), Akira TANIYAMA, (Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corp.)

The reason for an award

It is useful to observe microstructure evolution directly during heat treatment and it is very important to monitor internal or phase stresses directly during transformation in order to understand the transformation mechanism. It is possible for the neutron diffraction technique to determine the phase stresses from lattice constants of the constituents.

In this paper, the authors tried to conduct in situ monitor of the phase transformation behavior from austenite during cooling in a 1.5Mn-1.5Si-0.2C steel. The experimental results among in situ neutron diffraction, dilatometry measurement and in situ X-ray diffraction were compared and the in situ neutron diffraction measurement enabled to investigate the changes in lattice constants of ferrite and austenite. And the relationships among thermal contraction, carbon enrichment in austenite and phase stresses were discussed. From the neutron diffraction data using the Eshelby inclusion theory, the generation of phase stresses, transformation strains, thermal misfit strains, and carbon enrichment in austenite during ferrite transformation were discussed. The carbon concentration for the onset of pearlite transformation was estimated and diffraction profile line broadening caused by pearlite formation was presented. The present results using the neutron diffraction experiments made clear the phase transformation behavior in a quantitative way for the first time.

From the above reasons, the academic and engineering contributions of the present paper are outstanding and this paper is worthy of the Sawamura Award.

Guimarães Award

No award

Distinguished Article Award

Prediction of Nonmetallic Inclusion Formation in Fe–40mass%Ni–5mass%Cr Alloy Production Process

Tetsu-to-Hagané, Vol.95(2009), No.12, pp.827-836
Naoya SATOH(Tohoku Univ.), Toru TANIGUCHI, Setsuo MISHIMA, Teruyasu OKA(Hitachi Metals), Takahiro MIKI and Mitsutaka HINO(Tohoku Univ.)

The reason for an award

Thermodynamic consideration is an effective procedure for prediction of inclusion composition in steelmaking process. In order to describe the activity coefficient of components in high alloy steel, the authors proposed a uniform expression by Redlich-Kister parameters, which is called Miki and Hino's formalism. In this article, the equilibrium relations between oxides and the composition of components in high alloy steel were discussed, and plant data were compared with the calculated results. It was found that Miki and Hino's formalism can be utilized for high alloy steel. That is, the authors succeeded in the calculation of the equilibrium relationship between the components of molten steel and inclusions for high alloy steel. It can consistently explain the relationship in actual steelmaking operation.

To begin with, it has much academic value that Miki and Hino's formalism can calculate the activity of components in high alloy steel by a uniform expression by Redlich-Kister parameters. Moreover, it also has a technical significance to solve the disagreement between the composition of molten steel and inclusions, which has been a major problem in steelmaking process.

With the spread of high alloy steels, the control of inclusions has become of great importance. Miki and Hino's formalism and the derived thermodynamic parameters will continue to be utilized, and further development to other multi-component systems is expected.

The paper apparently has an absolute value with an academic and a technical significance, and thus it is worth well the Distinguished Article Award.

High-strength Fe-20Mn-Al-C-based Alloys with Low Density

ISIJ International, Vol.50(2010), No.6, pp. 893-899
Yuji SUTOU, Naohide KAMIYA, Reiko UMINO, Ikuo OHNUMA and Kiyohito ISHIDA(Tohoku Univ.)

The reason for an award

There is increasing demand to develop structural materials with high specific strength (strength-to-density ratio), in order to reduce the weight of transportation vehicles which leads to the improvement of fuel efficiency and reduction of CO2 emission. Lowering the density of steel by adding light elements such as Al and Si has been well-recognized as an effective approach to increase the specific strength.

The present authors systematically investigated the influence of chemical composition and heat treatment condition on the constituent phases, microstructural morphology, hardness, cold workability and tensile property at room temperature in the Fe-20mass%Mn-Al-C quaternary and Fe-20mass%Mn-Al-C-5 mass% Cr quinary alloys with a low density of less than 7.0g/cm3. As a result, low density steels exhibiting excellent combinations of high specific strength and elongation were successfully developed through a simple annealing treatment. The relation between the microstructure and mechanical property of the low-density steels was clearly summarized in a wide chemical composition range, based on phase diagrams. It was also found out that nano-size κ carbides, which precipitated during cooling from annealing temperature, significantly strengthened the steels and the α volume fraction affected the mechanical property of γ+α duplex steels. These findings have thus contributed to the development of high-strength steel with low density.

Therefore, the present paper is considered as a pioneering work in the field of high-strength steel with low density and it is worthy of the Distinguished Article Award.